Sunday, July 19, 2009

Certain Oral Bacteria Linked To Obesity

Certain Oral Bacteria Linked To Obesity

Investigators at the Forsyth Institute are focusing on the possible role of oral bacteria as a potential direct contributor to obesity. It seems likely that certain bacterial species could serve as biological indicators of a developing overweight condition.

Researchers J.M. Goodson, D. Groppo, S. Halem and E. Carpino measured salivary bacterial populations of overweight women. Saliva was collected from 313 women with a body mass index between 27 and 32, and bacterial populations were measured by DNA probe analysis. Levels in this group were compared with data from a population of 232 healthy individuals from periodontal disease studies. The median percentage difference of seven of the 40 bacterial species measured was greater than 2 percent in the saliva of overweight women. Classification tree analysis of salivary microbiological composition revealed that 98.4 percent of the overweight women could be identified by the presence of a single bacterial species (Selenomonas noxia) at levels greater than 1.05 percent of the total salivary bacteria. Analysis of these data suggests that the composition of salivary bacteria changes in overweight women.

Of even greater interest, and the subject of future research, is the possibility that oral bacteria may participate in the pathology that leads to obesity. The complete research study is published in the June issue of the International and American Associations for Dental Research's Journal of Dental Research.

Source: Journal of Dental Research

Los Angeles Gum Surgery

History Of Periodontitis Linked To Cerebrovascular Disease In Men

History Of Periodontitis Linked To Cerebrovascular Disease In Men

History Of Periodontitis Linked To Cerebrovascular Disease In MenScienceDaily (July 3, 2009) — The potential role of periodontitis, an inflammatory disease of the gums, in the risk of cardiovascular disease, particularly ischemic stroke, has received growing attention during the last decade. A new study is the first prospective cohort study to use clinical measures of periodontitis to evaluate the association between this disease and the risk of cerebrovascular disease.Led by Thomas Dietrich of the University of Birmingham School of Dentistry, and Elizabeth Krall of the Boston VA and the Boston University School of Dental Medicine, the study analyzed data from 1,137 men in the VA Normative Aging and Dental Longitudinal Study, an ongoing study begun in the 1960s with healthy male volunteers from the greater Boston area. A trained periodontist conducted dental exams every three years that included full mouth X-rays and periodontal probing at each tooth. Cerebrovascular disease was defined as a stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) and follow-up lasted an average of 24 years.The results showed a significant association between periodontal bone loss and the incidence of stroke or TIA, independent of cardiovascular risk factors. This association was much stronger among men younger than 65 years old.There are several possible pathways that could explain the association found in the study. There could be direct or indirect effects of the periodontal infection and the inflammatory response, or some people may have an increased pro-inflammatory susceptibility that could contribute to both cerebrovascular disease and periodontal disease.The study found that only periodontal bone loss, which would indicate a history of periodontal disease, not probing depth, which would indicate current inflammation, was associated with the incidence of cerebrovascular disease. Also, the stronger association in younger men seen in this and other studies may indicate a pro-inflammatory susceptibility in some men that is reflected in periodontal destruction at a younger age.The authors note that if periodontitis caused cerebrovascular disease, it could be an important risk factor, given its relatively high prevalence and the strength of the association in younger men. It is also possible that people with periodontitis may pay less attention to health in general (e.g., they may not take medications as regularly). The authors conclude: "Large epidemiologic studies using molecular and genetic approaches in various populations are necessary to determine the strength of the association between periodontitis and cerebrovascular disease and to elucidate its biologic basis."This study is published in Annals of Neurology.

Monday, July 13, 2009

AGD panel to discuss perio, heart disease link

AGD panel to discuss perio, heart disease link

The connection between periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease will be the topic of a panel discussion on the growing need for dentists and physicians to collaborate at this week's Academy of General Dentistry (AGD) annual meeting.

Marvin Slepian, M.D., and Neil Gottehrer, D.D.S., will lead an "Oral/Body Inflammation Connection" discussion during the meeting in Baltimore.

"It is critical for all dentists and physicians to collaborate in helping patients reduce inflammation, which can become a target factor for cardiovascular disease," Dr. Slepian stated in a press release.

Information presented during this session will provide dentists with hands-on knowledge regarding how to communicate with physicians to collaborate and create more proactive management periodontal disease treatment plans (including nonsurgical options), which can then improve periodontal and associated physical health by reducing cardiovascular disease.

"This is a landmark course being presented, and I am honored to be holding the discussion with my colleague, Dr. Slepian," Dr. Gottehrer stated in the release. "We hope to provide groundbreaking and useful information to attendees to help them improve the overall health of their patients and to build an increased awareness about the connection between periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease that many, if not most, patients are unaware of."

Along with a panel of seven other doctors, Drs. Gottehrer and Slepian will identify the categories by grade of periodontal disease and the risks of disease to the patient, describe uniform treatment for all stages of both periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease, and suggest a successful hygiene program to improve dental care given to patients.

LANAP Dentist

Thursday, July 9, 2009

Researchers study link between gum disease and memory loss

Researchers study link between gum disease and memory loss.

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has awarded a $1.3 million grant to a group of researchers who have found a link between gum disease and memory loss.

The research team includes Richard Crout, D.M.D., Ph.D., an expert on gum disease and the associate dean for research at West Virginia University (WVU) School of Dentistry; gerontologist Bei Wu, Ph.D., a researcher at the University of North Carolina; Brenda Plassman, Ph.D., a specialist in memory research at Duke University; and Jersey Liang, Ph.D., a professor at the University of Michigan.

The team will look at health records of several thousand Americans over many years, according to WVU.

"This could have great implications for health of our aging populations," Dr. Crout stated in a press release. "With rates of Alzheimer's skyrocketing, imagine the benefits of knowing that keeping the mouth free of infection could cut down on cases of dementia."

The research builds on an ongoing study of West Virginians age 70 and older. Working with the WVU School of Medicine, School of Dentistry researchers have given oral exams and memory tests to 270 elderly people in more than a dozen West Virginia counties.

Funded by a $419,000 two-year grant, they've discovered that about 23% of the group suffers from mild to moderate memory loss.

"If you have a gum infection, you'll have an increased level of inflammatory by-products," Dr. Crout noted. "We're looking for markers in the blood that show inflammation to see if there is a link to memory problems. We'd like to go full circle and do an intervention -- to clean up some of the problems in the mouth and then see if the inflammatory markers go down."

Los Angeles Periodontist

Laser periodontal therapy effective alternative to surgery

Laser periodontal therapy effective alternative to surgery

Laser periodontal therapy is an effective alternative to scalpel/suture surgery for treating gum disease, according to a new study in the International Journal of Periodontics & Restorative Dentistry.

Led by Raymond A. Yukna, D.M.D., M.S., the histological split mouth design study looked at twelve single-rooted teeth with moderate to advanced chronic periodontitis. Six teeth were given Laser Assisted New Attachment Procedure (LANAP) using the PerioLase MVP-7 by Millennium Dental Technologies, while the other six received scaling and root planing only.

After three months, all LANAP-treated teeth showed regeneration of root surface (cementum) and new connective tissue attachment (CTA), whereas none of the control teeth effectively showed new attachment or regeneration.

"These positive results support the concept that LANAP can be associated with cementum-mediated new connective tissue attachment and apparent periodontal regeneration of diseased root surfaces in humans,” said Dr. Yukna in a press release. "Recent years have seen major advancements in periodontal technology, and this study is a successful demonstration of using a free-running pulsed Nd:YAG laser applying the specific LANAP protocol."

"The publication of this study addresses many of the concerns held by the dental community," said Michael Minailo, president and CEO of Millennium Dental Technologies. "With growing demand and continued scientific support, we expect to see significant momentum in 2009."

Monday, July 6, 2009

Patients With Moderate To Severe Periodontitis Need Evaluation For Heart Disease Risk

Additional research is called for and patients with moderate to severe periodontitis should receive evaluation and possible treatment to reduce their risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD), according to a special consensus paper by editors of The American Journal of Cardiology and Journal of Peridontology in the July 1, 2009 issue of The American Journal of Cardiology, published by Elsevier. Periodontitis, a bacterially-induced, localized, chronic inflammatory disease, destroys connective tissue and bone that support the teeth. Periodontitis is common, with mild to moderate forms affecting 30 to 50% of adults and the severe generalized form affecting 5 to 15% of all adults in the USA. In addition, there is now strong evidence that people with periodontitis are at increased risk of atherosclerotic CVD - the accumulation of lipid products within the arterial vascular wall. The explanation for the link between periodontitis and atherosclerotic CVD is not yet clear, but a leading candidate is inflammation caused by the immune system. In recent years the inflammation is now recognized as a significant active participant in many chronic diseases. Other explanations for periodontitis and atherosclerotic CVD are common risk factors such as smoking,Diabetes mellitus, genetics, mentalanxiety, depression, obesity, and physical inactivity. Regardless of the cause, the expert panel believes that the current evidence is strong enough to recommend that doctors assess atherosclerotic CVD in their patients with periodontitis. The research recommends that patients with moderate to severe periodontitis should be informed that there may be an increased risk of atherosclerotic CVD associated with periodontitis, and those patients with one or more known major risk factor for atherosclerotic CVD should consider a medical evaluation if they have not done so in the past 12 months. "This consensus paper is important because it will draw attention to the fact that patients with periodontitis, especially moderate and severe forms of the disease, can have increased risk for coronary disease," commented to David Dionne, Executive Publisher of The American Journal of Cardiology. Notes: The article is "The American Journal of Cardiology and Journal of Periodontology Editors' Consensus: Periodontitis and Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease" by Vincent E. Friedewald, MD, Kenneth S. Kornman, DDS, PhD, James D. Beck, PhD, Robert Genco, DDS, PhD, Allison Goldfine, MD, Peter Libby, MD, Steven Offenbacher, DDS, PhD, MMsc, Paul M. Ridker, MD, MPH, Thomas E. Van Dyke, DDS, PhD and William C. Roberts, MD. It appears in The American Journal of Cardiology, Volume 104, Issue 1 (July 1, 2009) published by Elsevier. Source: Maureen Hunter Elsevier